Logging is an essential aspect of managing Linux servers. Log messages are useful for root cause analysis and to prevent potential error occurrences in the future. Analyzing and debugging server errors is an essential skill for both IT engineers and system administrators.
This guide will show you how to set up a remote logging server, also known as a logging host, on Linux. A log host allows you to aggregate local Linux logs to a remote centralized server for easy access and analysis.
Why have a dedicated logging server?
The Linux operating system logs most activity on your server for auditing and debugging purposes using the syslog (system logging protocol) daemon. So you might be wondering why do I need a dedicated server for my logs? Here are some benefits of having a dedicated logging server:
- Better security because the remote logging server has only a few ports open to the outside.
- Improved server performance because the remote logging host does not run many services except those used for logging.
- Facilitates archiving and management of log messages.
Log messages are important for auditing your servers and SEO and are an integral part of preventive maintenance procedures for your server infrastructure.
Step 1: Installing rsyslog on Linux
This guide focuses on Ubuntu 20.04, but the process should be much the same if you’re using other mainstream Linux distributions.
rsyslog is a remote logging service for Linux and comes pre-installed by default on most modern Linux distributions, for example, Ubuntu and other Debian-based systems.
The rsyslog service is a modern and improved syslog daemon, which only allows you to manage logs locally. With the rsyslog daemon, you can send your local logs to a configured remote Linux server.
If you don’t have rsyslog installed on your PC, you can easily do so using the following command, on Debian-based distributions:
sudo apt install rsyslog
On Red Hat Linux, you can install it by typing:
yum install rsyslog
On Fedora and its derivatives, run:
dnf install rsyslog
To install rsyslog on Arch Linux:
yay -S rsyslog
To check the status of rsyslog, run the following command:
systemctl status rsyslog
Step 2: Configuring the Log Host Server
The log host is the server configured to receive log messages from other servers or PCs. The rsyslog configuration resides in the /etc/rsyslog.conf file.
You can open the /etc/rsyslog.conf file using any text editor of your choice. In this guide, we will be using Vim.
You will need elevated privileges to make changes to the configuration file.
Before you start editing the configuration file, you should make a backup or copy of the file. To do this, run the command:
sudo cp /etc/rsyslog.conf /etc/rsyslog_original.config
Then open the /etc/rsyslog.conf file using a text editor.
sudo vim /etc/rsyslog.conf
There are two protocols you can use to send/receive log files with rsyslog: TCP and UDP. This guide shows you how to configure both.
You don’t need to configure both UDP and TCP for remote logging to work. Choose only one of the two.
If you prefer to use UDP, find and uncomment the following lines by removing the beginning Grind (#) symbol preceding the lines. You can find these lines in the modules section of the configuration file.
If you prefer to use TCP, uncomment the following lines by removing the beginning Grind (#) symbol located at the beginning of the line:
The following figure shows the rsyslog configuration file configured to use UDP communication:
Next, configure where rsyslog will store your logs. For better organization, you should classify incoming logs according to their origin. Define a pattern in your rsyslog configuration file by adding the following lines:
$template remote-incoming-logs, "/var/log/remote/%HOSTNAME%".log
The aforementioned lines command rsyslog to store the logs in the folder /var/log/remote/hostnameor host name is the name of the remote client that sends log messages to the log host.
Now save the changes you have made. If you’re using Vim, here’s how to save and exit a file.
Finally, restart the rsyslog services for the changes you made to take effect.
sudo systemctl restart rsyslog
Step 3: Configure your firewall
If your firewall is enabled, make sure the port you configured above is able to communicate with the outside world. You will need to modify your firewall rules to allow incoming logs.
For Debian-based distributions, just use the UFW tool to enable UDP or TCP transfer protocol.
If you are using UDP, run the following command, where 514 is the configured port number:
sudo ufw 514/udp
If you are using TCP on port 514, just run:
sudo ufw 514/tcp
On Fedora you can use firewall-cmd to get similar results.
firewall-cmd --zone=zone --add-port=514/udp
For Red Hat Linux, open the iptables file located at /etc/sysconfig/iptables using the text editor of your choice and add the following rule:
-A INPUT -m state --state NEW -m udp -p udp --dport 514 -j ACCEPT
Restart the iptables service for the changes to take effect.
service iptables restart
Step 4: Configuring the logging client
The client is the machine that sends its logs to a remote or centralized log host server. Open the rsyslog configuration file located at /etc/rsyslog.conf:
sudo vim /etc/rsyslog.conf
Add the following line if using UDP, where 192.168.12.123 is the IP address of the remote server, you will write your logs to:
If you are using TCP, add the following line instead. Note that the line has two @ symbols.
Save your changes and restart the rsyslog service on the client with the command:
sudo systemctl restart rsyslog
Step 5: Viewing log messages on the server
You can use SSH to connect to your remote server and view logs sent from client servers. In this case, rsyslog is configured to store client logs in the /var/log/remote remote server directory.
Next, list the contents of the directory using the ls command:
As you can see in the output, the directory contains log messages for remote servers named andiwa and rukuru. Their log files are named andiwa.log and rukuru.log respectively.
You can then view the log files using a text editor or with Linux file viewing tools such as cat or less.
Remote logging gives you more control
This guide looked at how to set up a remote logging server (logging host) on Linux.
A log host gives you better organization and control when it comes to logging. Even in scenarios where a system is damaged or inaccessible, you can still view its logs from the log host and determine what went wrong.
Getting Started with System Logging in Linux
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